How to differentiate vomiting in neonates and infants? Part I. Pathophysiology. Inflammatory and neurological causes of vomiting

Klinika Pediatrii, Kardiologii Prewencyjnej i Immunologii Wieku Rozwojowego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi.
Kierownik Kliniki: prof. dr hab. n. med. Krzysztof Zeman
Adres do korespondencji: Klinika Pediatrii, Kardiologii Prewencyjnej i Immunologii Wieku Rozwojowego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, ul. Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Łódź, e-mail: krzysztof.zeman@onet.pl
Praca finansowana ze środków własnych

Pediatr Med rodz Vol 10 Numer 1, p. 36–40
DOI: 10.15557/PiMR.2014.0004
ABSTRACT

Vomiting (emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. The content of the vomit may be of medical interest. Vomiting can be dangerous if the gastric content gets into the respiratory tract. Vomiting child is at risk of developing and may alter the electrolyte status dehydration. It is normal for newborn and infants to vomit. In most cases, the vomiting will last no longer than one or two days and is not a sign of anything serious. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy in infancy are common presentations that require considered management. However, persistent vomiting can sometimes be a sign of something more serious, such as a severe respiratory or urinary tract infection, viral gastroenteritis infection, infection of central nervous system. One of the most serious causes of vomiting in infants are elevated intracranial pressure and occlusion of the gastrointestinal tract. In all cases general practitioner has a key role in identifying whether a child needs further investigation and management.

Keywords: vomiting, newborn, infant, viral gastroenteritis, otitis acuta, pertussis, meningitis, intracranial hypertension