Vomiting in newborns and infants is an important clinical problem. It can be a sign of serious illnesses, life-threatening conditions and require urgent diagnosis and treatment. Knowledge of the specific causes of vomiting in the first year of life provide the diagnosis. Most of surgical causes of vomiting is associated with conditions that cause occlusion of the gastrointestinal tract. Vomiting newborn should be suspected of congenital digestive tract malformation, especially if early onset of symptoms are observed. In infancy one should remember about pyloric stenosis and intussusception. In both groups vomiting can be a symptom of incarcerated hernia or Hirschsprung disease. Vomiting newborns or infants require careful assessment, diagnosis and finding the optimal treatment. Differential diagnosis of vomiting and identification life-threatening diseases that require urgent surgical interventions could be a challenge.