Upper respiratory tract infections (often with multiple locations) are a common problem, especially in the GP’s office. These infections account for about 50–60% of all community-acquired infections and are the most common cause of fever in infants and young children. Most are viral infections. Bacterial factors are S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. The basic procedure is a detailed medical anamnesis, a careful examination and determination of the likely aetiology of the infection. The decision to empirically treat the infection is generally based on the initial differential diagnosis, without the need for a microbiological examination. In case of a viral infection, a symptomatic treatment is sufficient. In the case of suspected bacterial aetiology, is bacteriological confirmation is not suitable, but empirical antibiotic therapy should be implemented. Physicians must pay attention particularly to compliance. Without compliance the treatment generally fails. Currently, physicians have antibiotics (such as amoxicillin with clavulanic acid) which in terms of efficiency and safety are almost ideal drugs. Among the features of an ideal antibiotics we may find: spectrum of effect covering the most common pathogens, efficiency, bioavailability, multiple dosage form, safety, availability and a low cost of treatment. In case of complications or failure of the therapy the exact aetiology should be determined (bacteriological, virological, mycological examination) and hospitalisation should be considered. Following and respecting such scheme of behaviour may contribute to a faster and more efficient treatment of the upper respiratory tract infections, decrease the number of complications, which is equally important, and reduce direct and indirect costs of the therapy.