Introduction: Pancreatic pseudocysts are frequent complications after acute and chronic pancreatitis. They are diagnosed in 6–18% of patients with the history of acute pancreatitis and in 20–40% cases with chronic pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to analyse early results of surgical treatment of pancreatic acute and chronic pseudocysts based on our experience. Material and methods: The retrospective analysis was based on early results of surgical treatment of 46 patients aged between 20 and 78 (33 males and 13 females) who underwent treatment of acute (n = 26) and chronic (n = 20) pancreatic pseudocysts from November 2005 to July 2011 at the Second Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery and Surgical Oncology of the Alimentary Tract in Lublin. Results: The choice of a surgical method of treatment depended on the size, localisation, thickness of pseudocystic wall and changes in the main pancreatic duct. We used the following surgical methods: cystogastrostomy (Jurasz procedure) was conducted in 22 patients (47.8%), Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy was performed in 19 cases (41.3%), complete excision of the pseudocyst was possible in two patients (4.3%) and cystoduodenostomy – in one case (2.1%). Also, in single cases external drainage (2.1%) and cystopancreaticojejunostomy of Puestow (2.1%) were applied. Forty-four patients (95.6%) were cured. Early postoperative complications were observed in 2 patients (4.4%). Two reoperations (4.4%) were required. Early postoperative mortality was 0%. Conclusions: Classic internal drainage procedures, known since the 19th century, are still effective methods of treatment in acute and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts.